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Scleral Grafts in Ophthalmic Surgery. A Review

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Aim: To summarize the history and current trends in the use of scleral grafts in ophthalmology.

Materials and methods: We conducted a review of the literature through the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases. The search terms were "sclera", "graft", and "surgery". The search resulted in 1596 articles, of which we evaluated 192 as relevant. The relevant articles were sorted chronologically and according to the method of using scleral grafts, which enabled the development of a review article.

Results: The sclera has been routinely used in ophthalmology since the 1950s in many different indications. Some of these indications have become practically obsolete over time (for example, use in the surgical management of retinal detachment), but a large number still find application today (especially use in glaucoma or oculoplastic surgery, or as a patch for a defect in the sclera or cornea).

Conclusion: Even though allogeneic sclera is currently used less frequently in ophthalmology compared to other tissue banking products and the range of its indications has partially narrowed, it remains a useful material due to its availability and properties.