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Case report

Refractive Surgery in a Patient with Alport Syndrome. A Case Report

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The authors present a case of a thirty-eight-year-old patient with Alport syndrome. The patient had several ocular symptoms of the disease and has been treated for systemic problems in connection with Alport syndrome since he was fifteen years old. At that age the patient also underwent a kidney transplant in order to deal with renal insufficiency. To date, he still uses immunosuppressants and antihypertensives. Furthermore, the patient suffers from perceptive deafness. The patient visited our clinic in 2021 with a request to solve his high refractive error, in which the diopters were so high that it was not possible to place them in spectacles. The patient’s best corrected visual acuity was 0.6 with -8.0sph/-4.0cyl/ax15 in the right eye and 0.7partim with -8.0sph/-4.0cyl/ax155 in the left eye. The autorefractometer values were -6.25sph/-6.75cyl/ax17 in the right eye and -6.75sph/-6.5cyl/ax155 in the left eye. During the eye examination we found a number of ocular manifestations that are typical of Alport syndrome. On the cornea there were opacities as a residue of corneal erosions, and at one of the following check-ups we also found a newly developed corneal erosion. Subsequently, we found an anterior lenticonus and incipient cataract. Upon performing OCT, a typical temporal macular atrophy was evident. Fundus examination in artificial mydriasis showed just a minimal manifestation of fleck retinopathy. Due to the clinical manifestation we decided to perform cataract surgery and implant a monofocal toric intraocular lens in both eyes. There were no complications during the operations, however the surgeon registered a non-standard structure of the lens capsule. The capsule was more fragile, and performing capsulorhexis was much more complicated. A week after the surgery, higher cylinder diopters were still present. A decrease of the higher diopters was noticeable one month after surgery. The time interval between the first operation and the second operation was one month. The patient was highly satisfied with result, and uncorrected visual acuity improved by over four lines. After surgery the patient needed low diopters for near as well as far distance. In the case of this patient, the ocular manifestations were detected and treated in adulthood. Nevertheless, early detection of ocular symptoms of Alport syndrome in young patients before renal failure could lead to timely start of the treatment and delay a possible renal transplant. In case of any suspicion of Alport syndrome it is advised to send the patient to a pediatrician, and at an older age to an internal medicine specialist, for further examination.