Aim: To introduce the topic of pediatric keratoconus, highlighting the importance of routine corneal topography and tomography in children and adolescents from predisposed groups. To attempt to ensure the early detection of keratoconus and its subclinical form, enabling early treatment, which brings better expected postoperative results.
Material and methods: Using the corneal tomograph Pentacam AXL we examined children and adolescents with astigmatism equal or greater than 2 diopters (in at least one eye) and patients with at least one risk factor such as eye rubbing in the case of allergic pathologies, positive family history of keratoconus or certain forms of retinal dystrophy. In total, we included 231 eyes (116 patients), of which 54 were girls and 62 were boys.
Results: The Belin-Ambrósio deviation index parameter was evaluated, in which we classified a total of 41 eyes as subclinical keratoconus and 12 eyes as clinical keratoconus. Next, the corneal maps were evaluated individually, in which we included a total of 15 eyes as subclinical keratoconus and 6 eyes as clinical keratoconus. In our group, compared to the control group, subclinical and clinical keratoconus occurred most often in the group of patients with astigmatism and in the group of so-called “eye rubbers”. After individual evaluation, keratoconus occurred more frequently in boys than in girls in our cohort.
Conclusion: Most patients with keratoconus are diagnosed when there is a deterioration of visual acuity and changes on the anterior surface of the cornea. Corneal topography and tomography allows us to monitor the initial changes on the posterior surface of the cornea, and helps us to detect the subclinical form of keratoconus and the possibility of its early treatment. Therefore, it is important to determine which groups are at risk and groups in which corneal topography and tomography should be performed routinely.