2024 - 2 Issue

Original article

Diagnostic Challenges of Ocular Rosacea

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Objective: This study aims to address the issues surrounding the diagnosis of ocular rosacea and to evaluate the development of the patients’ condition after treatment, as well as to distinguish between healthy and diseased patients using a glycomic analysis of tears.

Methodology: A prospective study was conducted to assess a total of 68 eyes in 34 patients over a six-week period. These patients were diagnosed with ocular rosacea based on subjective symptoms and clinical examination. The study monitored the development of objective and subjective values. The difference between patients with the pathology and healthy controls was established by means of analysis of glycans in tears.

Results: Skin lesions were diagnosed in 94% of patients with ocular rosacea, with the most commonly observed phenotype being erythematotelangiectatic (68.8%). The mean duration of symptoms was 29.3 months (range 0.5–126 months) with a median of 12 months. Throughout the study, an improvement in all monitored parameters was observed, including Meibomian gland dysfunction, bulbar conjunctival hyperemia, telangiectasia of the eyelid margin, anterior blepharitis, uneven and reddened eyelid margins, and corneal neovascularization. The study also observed improvements in subjective manifestations of the disease, such as foreign body sensation, burning, dryness, lachrymation, itching eyes, photophobia, and morning discomfort. The analysis of glycans in tears partially separated tear samples based on their origin, which allowed for the differentiation of patients with rosacea from healthy controls. In the first sample, the pathology was determined in a total of 63 eyes (98.4%) of 32 patients, with further samples showing a change in the glycomic profile of patients’ tears during treatment.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated objective and subjective improvements in all the patients. Tear sampling and analysis could provide a means of timely diagnosis of ocular rosacea.